Essay On Womens Rights
The women's rights movement of the mid-nineteenth century unified women around a number of issues that were seen as fundamental rights for all citizens; they included: the right to own property, access to higher education, reproductive rights, and suffrage. Women's suffrage was the most controversial women's rights issue of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and divided early feminists on ideological lines. After women secured the right to vote in 1917, the women's rights movement lost much of its momentum. World War I and II encouraged women to do their patriotic duty by entering the workforce to support the war effort. Many women assumed they would leave the working world when men returned from service, and many did. However, other women enjoyed the economic benefits of working outside the home and remained in the workforce permanently. After WWII, the women's rights movement had difficulty coming together on important issues. It was not until the socially explosive 1960s that the modern feminist movement would be re-energized. In the four decades since, the women's movement has tackled many issues that are considered discriminatory toward women including: sexism in advertising and the media, economic inequality issues that affect families, and violence against women. Two ongoing issues in which women seek social change are those having to do with wage discrimination and reproductive health.
Sex, Gender & Sexuality
Like any almost every other modern social movement, the women's rights movement comprises diverse ideals. Feminist and American responses to the movement have generally fallen along three lines:
* Staunch opposition to change;
* Support of moderate and gradual change; and
* Demand for immediate radical change (Leone, 1996).
The women's rights movement rose during the nineteenth century in Europe and America in response to great inequalities between the legal statuses of women and men. During this time, advocates fought for suffrage, the right to own property, equal wages, and educational opportunities (Lorber, 2005).
In the United States, suffrage proved to be one of the driving issues behind the movement. However, when the movement first began, many moderate feminists saw the fight for voting rights as radical and feared that it would work against their efforts to reach less controversial goals such as property ownership, employment, equal wages, higher education, and access to birth control. The divide between moderate and radical feminists started early in America's history and continues to be present in the women's movement (Leone, 1996).
First proposed as a federal amendment in 1868, women's suffrage floundered for many years before the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment gave women the right to vote in 1920. It was 1917 when the National Woman's Party (NWP) met with President Woodrow Wilson and asked him to support women's suffrage. When the women were dismissed by Wilson, members of the party began a picket at the White House. Their protest lasted 18 months. Harriot Stanton Blatch, the daughter of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Alice Paul were among the first organizers of the picket. However, the picket was not supported by the older and more conservative women's rights group, the National American Women's Suffrage Association (NAWSA). Its members saw the picket as somewhat "militant" and sought to win suffrage state by state rather than through a federal amendment (Leone, 1996).
America's involvement in World War I during the spring of 1917 affected the women's suffrage movement in a number of ways. The NWP refused to support the war effort, while NAWSA saw support of the war as an act of patriotism and a way to further women's rights issues. The differences between the two groups led to hostility that continued until August of 1919 when the Nineteenth Amendment was passed. Both the NWP and NAWSA claimed responsibility for the passage of the amendment. Historians disagree about which party was most influential. Many credit the combination of militant and moderate strategies that were employed by each group (Leone, 1996).
After the women's suffrage movement, some men and women considered the fight for women's rights to be over. Many of the organizations that had been so active in promoting suffrage disbanded after the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified. Though some women's suffrage groups did continue as organizations--namely, the League of Women Voters--the feminist movement sputtered without a unifying cause (Leone, 1996). The Great Depression of the 1930s further hurt the women's movement: most women simply did not have the time or energy to dedicate to feminist causes. With America's entry into World War II, many women entered the workforce for the first time. However, this entry was accompanied by the assumption that women would exit the workforce once American men returned from service. Postwar America saw a steep decline in participation in the women's rights movement. The numbers of women attending college dropped during the 1950s as women married earlier and had more children.
The women's rights movement re-formed during the 1960s as the women's liberation movement (Lorber, 2005). The period would mark the "revitalization of feminism" (Leone, 1996).
According to Judith Lorber, twentieth-century feminism was more fragmented than nineteenth-century feminism, perhaps as a result of deeper understandings of the sources of gender inequality (Lorber, 2005). In the twenty-first century, there are still many issues that challenge women's economic and political status in the world, and women of all kinds are fighting many battles on many fronts.
Challenges to gender equality occur in many ways. Some of the most commonly recognized issues are:
* Education: Men tend to have higher educational attainments, though in the US and Western world this gap is rapidly closing.
* Wages and Employment: Men occupying the same jobs as women tend to be paid more, promoted more frequently, and receive more recognition for their accomplishments.
* Health Care: In some countries, men have more access to and receive better health care than women.
* Violence and Exploitation: Women are subjected to violence and exploitation at greater rates than men.
* Social Inequality: Women still perform the majority of domestic duties such as housework and child care (Lorber, 2005).
Women's unimpeded access to educational opportunities is strongly supported by feminists. The gap in educational attainment is shrinking rapidly in the industrialized world, and the gap in the US is quite small. However, lack of education still hurts women in fundamental ways, the most obvious being economic. This essay will discuss in more detail the gender wage gap that exists in the US. While education does increase a women's earning potential, research suggests that a definite and pervasive gender wage gap exists at every level of the workforce.
Gender Pay Gap
A "gendered division of labor" exists across the globe. A 1980 United Nations report stated that women performed two thirds of the world's work, garnered 10% of wages worldwide, and owned 1% of the world's property (Lorber, 2005). Even in the early twenty-first century, the workplaces of industrialized nations continue to demonstrate a curious paradox. While research shows that companies that encourage diversity and promote women to leadership roles have higher levels of financial performance than companies with less diversity, women's earnings are still significantly less than men's (Compton, 2007).
Great Britain, like the US, has grappled with the existence of the gender pay gap for many years. The US passed the Equal Pay Act in 1963, and Great Britain instituted its own Equal Pay Act in 1970. Both of these acts "offered women a legitimate avenue to seek remuneration for unequal pay"(Compton, 2007, 1(20). In 1970, the pay differential in Great Britain between men and women's wages was 30%. Nearly five decades later, in 2008, the gender pay gap still hovered around 17% and was the highest of all EU countries (De Vita, 2008). Some project that the disparity in wages will not be eliminated until around the year 2030 (De Vita, 2008). The question remains, if women are legally guaranteed equal pay, and if promoting women is generally recognized as good for business, why do women still earn less than men? The causes of the gender wage gap are various and complex.
The fact that many women choose to leave their jobs in order to have children is often identified as one reason for the wage gap. Proponents of this theory argue that, statistically, women earn less than men because some women do not hold paying, full-time jobs, thus dragging down women's average wages. However, most studies of the wage gap only count the earnings of women who work full-time. These studies reveal that of the women who do work full-time, those with children under the age of 18 earn 5 percent lower wages per hour per child than women who do not have children earn (Correll, 2013). In Great Britain, by age forty, men who have...
The problem of women’s place in the society has been studied for several centuries, and it is still relevant at the beginning of the 21st century. The history of the XX century shows us an important example of women’s rights movement, which managed to make great changes in the role and place of women in the life of the society. In the XX century there was a dramatic change in the role of women, as she has firmly taken a significant role in the economy, politics, culture and other spheres of life. The long struggle of women for equality has led to certain changes of social consciousness in the views on the socio-political role of women, but despite that, the full equality has not been achieved.
The relevance of the problem of women’s rights movement in the 21 century is due to the following:
Firstly, life in the modern civil society assumes a substantial increase in the social life of new “nontraditional” elements of the political system leads to increased importance of various social organizations, associations, institutions, among which is considered the women’s rights movement, having an increasing impact on society.
Second, despite the fact that both international and national legislation are based on the principle of equality, in practice women do not have equality in public life and activities. There is a contradiction between the new realities and lack of opportunities in the community to meet them: while consciousness of women increases, they are no longer satisfied with the imposed stereotype of social roles, where the family and motherhood are the only values and roles for them.
From all of the said above raises the need to consider the nature, objectives and achievements of the women’s movement for rights in the 20 century, and in particular in the USA.
The history of the women’s rights movement and the change of role of women in the society
The beginning of the women’s rights movement is considered to be the end of the War of Independence, in which American colonists fought for political rights, and more than half the American population were denied them. Many of them were women, also there were no rights in slaves, servants and poor contracts. It is considered that the abolitionist movement, which peak was in the middle of the XIX century, has had a significant influence on the rise of women’s movement. It is in the First World anti-slavery convention, which was held in 1840 in London, two future founders of women’s rights movement – Elizabeth Cade Stanton and Lucretia Mott decided to be active after they undergone considerable gender discrimination during the conference.
The starting point of the long struggle for rights of women in the U.S. is considered to the year 1848, when in the town of Seneca Falls took place a congress, where about three hundred men and women complained and made a list of necessary actions. Elizabeth Stanton made the “Declaration of Sentiments”, which is sometimes called the “Declaration of Rights and Sentiments”, and which was signed during the Congress. As the basis of the document was taken the U.S. Declaration of Independence, and Stanton accordingly approved that “all men and women were created equal”. (Flexner, 1996)
The main activists Elizabeth Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Lucy Stone and Susan B. Anthony (Susan B. Anthony) fought for the adoption of constitutional amendments that would have given the rights for both women and blacks. They even founded the American Equal Rights Association in 1866, and its chairman was elected Lucretia Mott. When 14 and 15 amendments were adopted, which expanded the rights of blacks and men, but did not include the relevant paragraphs on the rights of women, Stanton and Anthony created a National Woman Suffrage Association, which opposed the 15 amendment and took only women in their numbers. But also there was another group, the American Woman Suffrage Association, which supported the 15th amendment and considered it a necessary step to expand voting rights. (Hartmann 1998)
By the beginning of the XX century there were numerous women rights organizations: suffragette were active in the struggle for political and legal equality of women; socialist groups defended the idea of equal pay for women’s labor, participation of women in trade unions; radical feminists promoted ideas of conscious motherhood and birth control, and women’s charities. All of these trends, each in its own way, helped the woman, anyway, to get used to her new role in the society.
By the nature of the goals and objectives, including protecting the specific interests of women, women’s societies and unions are divided into charitable, social, political, religious, professional, moral and ethical. Socio-political set immediate objectives of the struggle for female suffrage, the equality with men. Professional (such as numerous groups of mutual help of women doctors, teachers, midwives, office workers, etc.) promoted the advancement of conditions and wages, financial aid, protection of the rights of hired workers and employees. Women’s organizations of moral and ethical direction highlighted the guardianship of the young mothers, young women, protection of the moral foundations of the American society. Among the forms of charitable activity that had a significant impact on the social status of women, stood out: the struggle for women’s education, the movement of employment assistance, child care, care of elderly women, support of students.
The social composition of women’s organizations were also very diverse: for example, representatives of the higher strata of society participated in women’s unions of national patriotic direction, and many charitable organizations; industrial workers and women of unskilled professional work, participated in the female workers’ clubs. Part of the society, acting within the scope of the liberal-democratic direction, expressed the interests of representatives of the intelligentsia. All these women were united by the main interest of self-development, the need to achieve equality and protection of their rights, the desire for self-employment, improvement of financial situation. Historical merit of these women is that they brought to the masses the ideas of gender equality, initiated numerous civic initiatives, rallied women and by their example promoted an independent way of life. (Flexner 1996)
Thus, during the XXth century, women’s movements have been one of the most important social movements of democratic orientation, coordinating their activities internationally. Depending on their political orientation women’s organizations defend economic interests, social needs and political rights of women. Moreover, in conjunction with the trade union, youth, environmental, pacifist and other social movements, women’s organizations have contributed greatly to the struggle of peoples for social progress, social justice, democracy, the statement of humanist principles in human relations.
As a result of slow gains at the end of XIX – first half of XX century, women have managed to win the right to education, to equality with men to work and get wages; and later they got the right to vote and be elected, the right to participate in the trade unions and political parties, the right to divorce, in some places the right on the use of contraceptives and right to abortion, the right to public assistance and maternity leave, on leave for child care, etc. So, slowly and gradually began shifts in social relations of gender, the conquest of women’s rights, and then of their right to power.
But despite all the positive changes that brought feminism, very often the equality was only on paper, but it was necessary to change attitudes towards women in people’s minds. “Awakening”, or “female revival” began in the 60’s with its epicenter in the United States, where in those years there was an intensification of the democratic processes aimed at eliminating various forms of discrimination. The women’s movement found new, more radical forms, which reflected in its title “women’s liberation movement”. (Freeman 1975)
In the 1980 and 1990-s feminism as a movement in the U.S. went into decline. Development of feminism at the state level, the growth of antifeminism, the focus on sexuality, body, to the specifics and differences of women, development of alternative women’s subculture – all that indicated a new stage of rethinking of the status of the sexes in contemporary society. Not by chance in the 1980 – 1990-s of it was spoken about the era of post-feminism. (Humm 1992)
In conclusion it is possible to say that for one and a half of century of its existence, the women’s movement has become a noticeable phenomenon in social life, has accumulated much experience in reducing discrimination against women, improved their social status. Thus, if we compare the lives of modern women to women of previous centuries, we will see that women today live much better, their conditions of life do not go to any comparison with conditions in which our ancestors had to live. Women in our time have the unprecedented freedom and great opportunities. Consequently, there is no reason to ensure that women did not experience happiness in our time! History shows us through what pain and suffering were going women before us, and many of them fought to gain the freedom that we have today. Some have even sacrificed their lives for us, and that is why women of the XXI century must always remember what a high price was paid to get a chance for woman to live a happy life today.
October 19, 2014 |Free Essay Sample Papers|Tags: Women’s rights