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Maxine Hong Kingston Essays For Scholarships


Lim, Shirley Geok-lin, ed. Approaches to Teaching Kingston’s The Woman Warrior. New York: Modern Language Association, 1991. A collection of essays with a pedagogical bias; includes a personal statement by Kingston and useful discussions of her formal experimentation, her use of traditional Chinese sources, and ways of approaching the text in the classroom.

Simmons, Diane. Maxine Hong Kingston. New York: Twayne, 1999. A comprehensive account of Kingston’s work. Simmons includes an extensive biographical essay and a brief interview with the author as well as close textual analyses of The Woman Warrior, China Men, and Tripmaster Monkey.

Wong, Sau-ling Cynthia, ed. Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior A Casebook. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. A useful collection representing the characteristic approaches to the text and the historical development of criticism of the book.


Brownmiller, Susan. “Susan Brownmiller Talks with Maxine Hong Kingston.” Mademoiselle (March 1977): 148-149, 210-211, 214-216.

Carabi, Angeles. “Interview with Maxine Hong Kingston.” Belles Lettres (Winter 1989): 10-11.

Moyers, Bill. A Conversation with Maxine Hong Kingston (videocassette). Alexandria, Va.: Public Broadcasting Service/Public Affairs Television, 1990.

Skenazy, Paul, and Tera Martin, eds. Conversations with Maxine Hong Kingston. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1998. Brings together sixteen interviews, with an introduction by the editors and a chronology of Kingston’s life and career.

Thompson, Phyllis Hoge, “This Is the Story I Heard: A Conversation with Maxine Hong Kingston and Earll Kingston.” Biography, 6 (Winter 1983): 1-12.


Chen, Victoria. “Chinese American Women, Language, and Moving Subjectivity.” Women and Language, 18 (Spring 1995): 3-7.

Hattori, Tomo. “China Man Autoeroticism and the Remains of Asian America.” Novel, 31 (Spring 1998): 215-236.

Hune, Shirley, Hyung Chan Kim, Stephen S. Fugita, and Amy Ling, eds. Asian Americans: Comparative and Global Perspectives. Pullman: Washington State University Press, 1991.

Kingston. “The Coming Book.” In The Writer on Her Work, edited by Janet Sternberg. New York: Norton, 1980.

Kingston. “Cultural Mis-readings by American Reviewers.” In Asian and Western Writers in Dialogue: New Cultural Identities, edited by Guy Amirthanayagam. London: Macmillan, 1982.

Kingston. “Finding a Voice.” In Language: Readings in Language and Culture, edited by Virginia P. Clark, Paul A. Eschholz, and Alfred F. Rosa, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.

Kingston. “How Are You? I Am Fine, Thank You. And You?” In The State of the Language, edited by Christopher Ricks and Leonard Michaels. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.

Kingston. “The Novel’s Next Step: From the Novel of the Americas to the Global Novel.” In The Novel in the Americas, edited by Raymond Leslie Williams. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1992.

Kingston. “Postscript as Process.” In The Bedford Reader, edited by X. J. Kennedy and Dorothy M. Kennedy. New York: Bedford Books, 1985.

Kingston. “Precepts for the Twentieth Century.” In Thich Nhat-Hanh, For a Future to be Possible: Commentaries on the Five Wonderful Precepts. Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1993.

Kingston. “Reservations About China.” Ms. (October 1978): 67-79.

Kingston. “San Francisco’s Chinatown: A View from the Other Side of Arnold Genthe’s Camera.” American Heritage, 30 (December 1978): 36-47.

Kingston and Thich Nhat-Hanh. “Forward.” In Chan Khong Cao Ngoc Phuong, Learning True Love: How I Learned and Practiced Social Change in Vietnam. Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1993.

Lim, Shirley Geok-lin, and Amy Ling, eds. Reading the Literatures of Asian America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992.

Ling. Between Worlds: Women Writers of Chinese Ancestry. New York & Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1990.

Ling. “Chinamerican Women Writers: Four Forerunners of Maxine Hong Kingston.” In Gender/Body/Knowledge: Feminist Reconstructions of Being and Knowing, edited by Alison Jaggar and Susan Bordo. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1989.

Ling. “Chinese American Women Writers: The Tradition behind Maxine Hong Kingston.” In Redefining American Literary History, edited by A. LaVonne Brown Ruoff and Jerry W. Ward. New York: Modern Language Association, 1990.

Ling, Jinqi. “Identity Crisis and Gender Politics: Reappropriating Asian American Masculinity.” In An Inter- ethnic Companion to Asian American Literature, edited by King-Kok Cheung. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.


Blinde, Patricia Lin. “The Icicle in the Desert: Perspective and Form in the Works of Two Chinese-American Women Writers.” MELUS, 6, no. 3 (1979): 51-71. Discusses the autobiographical work of Kingston and Jade Snow Wong.

Buss, Helen M. “Memoir with an Attitude: One Reader Reads The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood among Ghosts.” A-B: Auto-Biography Studies, 12 (Fall 1997): 203-224.

Castillo, Debra A. “The Daily Shape of Horses: Denise Chavez and Maxine Hong Kingston.” Dispositio, 16, no. 4 (1991): 29-43.

Chang, Hsiao-Hung. “Gender Crossing in Maxine Hong Kingston’s Tripmaster.MELUS, 22 (Spring 1997): 15-34.

Cheung, Kai-Chong. “Maxine Hong Kingston’s Non-Chinese Man.” Tamkang Review, 23 (Fall 1992 - Summer 1993): 421-430.

Cheung, King-Kok. Articulate Silences: Hisaye Yamamoto, Maxine Hong Kingston, Joy Kogawa. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993. Places Kingston within the context of significant Asian American women writers.

Cheung. “Self-Fulfilling Visions in The Woman Warrior and Thousand Pieces of Gold.” Biography, 13 (Spring 1990): 143-153.

Cheung. “Talk Story: Counter-Memory in Maxine Hong Kingston’s China Men.” Tamkang Review, 24 (Fall 1993): 21-37.

Chu, Patricia P. “Tripmaster Monkey, Frank Chin, and the Chinese Heroic Tradition.” Arizona Quarterly, 53 (Autumn 1997): 117-139. A discussion of the controversy between Kingston and Frank Chin over how the canon of Chinese American literature should be characterized.

Chun, Gloria. “The High Note of the Barbarian Reed Pipe: Maxine Hong Kingston.” Journal of Ethnic Studies, 19 (Fall 1991): 85-94.

Cliff, Michele. “The Making of Americans: Maxine Hong Kingston’s Crossover Dreams.” Village Voice Literary Supplement, 74 (May 1989): 11-13.

Cook, Rufus. “Maintaining the Past: Cultural Continuity in Maxine Hong Kingston’s Work.” Tamkang Review, 25 (Fall 1994): 35-58.

Dasenbrock, Reed Way. “Intelligibility and Meaningfulness in Multicultural Literature in English.” PMLA, 102 (January 1987): 10-19. Discusses Kingston’s The Woman Warrior, along with R. K. Narayan’s The Painter of Signs (1976), Rudolfo Anaya’s Bless Me, Ultima (1972), and Witi Ihimaera’s Tangi (1973), as texts that demonstrate both “implicit” as well as “explicit” multicultural features.

Deeney, John J. “Of Monkeys and Butterflies: Transformation in M. H. Kingston’s Tripmaster Monkey and D. H. Hwang’s M. Butterfly,” MEWS, 18 (Winter 1993-1994): 21-39.

Donaldson, Mara E. “Woman as Hero in Margaret Atwood’s Surfacing and Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior.” In Heroines of Popular Culture, edited by Pat Browne. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1987.

Eakin, Paul John. Fictions in Autobiography: Studies in the Art of Self-Invention. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985. A relatively early discussion of Kingston’s innovative use of the autobiographical form within a generic context.

Fong, Bobby. “Maxine Hong Kingston’s Autobiographical Strategy in The Woman Warrior.” Biography, 12 (Spring 1989): 116-126.

Friedman, Susan Stanford. “Women’s Autobiographical Selves: Theory and Practice.” In The Private Self: Theory and Practice of Women’s Autobiographical Writings, edited by Shari Benstock. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Frye, Joanne S. “The Woman Warrior: Claiming Narrative Power, Recreating Female Selfhood.” In Faith of a (Woman) Writer, edited by Alice Kessler Harris and William McBrien. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1988.

Furth, Isabella. “Beee-e-een! Nation, Transformation, and the Hyphen of Ethnicity in Kingston’s Tripmaster Monkey.” Modem Fiction Studies, 40 (Spring 1994): 33-49.

Hayes, Daniel. “Autobiography’s Secret.” A-B: Auto-Biography Studies, 1.2 (Fall 1997): 243-260.

Henke, Suzette A. “Women’s Life-Writing and the Minority Voice: Maya Angelou, Maxine Hong Kingston, and Alice Walker.” In Traditions, Voices, and Dreams: The American Novel since the 1960s, edited by Melvin J. Friedman and Ben Siegel. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1995.

Hunt, Linda. “’I could not figure out what was my village’: Gender vs. Ethnicity in Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior.” MELUS, 12 (Fall 1985): 5-12. A discussion of the interplay between racial and gender issues.

Juhasz, Suzanne. “Maxine Hong Kingston: Narrative Technique and Female Identity.” In Contemporary American Women Writers: Narrative Strategies, edited by Catherine Rainwater and William J. Scheick. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1985. Analysis of Kingston’s narrative technique in The Woman Warrior and China Men.

Lappas, Catherine. “The Way I Heard It Was . . .’: Myth, Memory, and Autobiography in Storyteller and The Woman Warrior.” CEA Critic, 57 (Fall 1994): 57-67. A comparative discussion of Kingston and the Native American writer Leslie Marmon Silko.

Lee, Rachel. “Claiming Land, Claiming Voice, Claiming Canon: Institutionalized Challenges in Kingston’s China Men and The Woman Warrior.” In Reviewing Asian America: Locating Diversity, edited by Wendy L. Ng, Soo Young Chin, James S. Moy, and Gary Y. Okihiro. Pullman: Washington State University Press, 1995.

Lee, Robert A. “Ethnic Renaissance: Rudolfo Anaya, Louise Erdrich, and Maxine Hong Kingston.” In The New American Writing: Essays on American Literature Since 1970, edited by Graham Clarke. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1990.

Li, David Leiwei. “China Men: Maxine Hong Kingston and the American Canon.” American Literary History, 2 (Fall 1990): 482-502.

Li. “The Naming of a Chinese American ’I’: Cross-Cultural Sign/ifications in The Woman Warrior.” Criticism, 30 (Fall 1988): 497-515.

Lidoff, Joan. “Autobiography in a Different Voice: Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior.” A-B: Auto-Biography Studies, 3 (Fall 1987): 29-35.

Ling, Amy. “Maxine Hong Kingston and the Dialogic Dilemma of Asian American Writers.” Bucknell Review, 39 (1995): 151-166.

Ling. “Thematic Threads in Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior.” Tamkang Review, 14 (Autumn 1983 -Summer 1984): 155-164.

Linton, Patricia. “’What Stories the Wind Would Tell’: Representation and Appropriation in Maxine Hong Kingston’s China Men.” MELUS, 19 (Winter 1994): 37-48.

Lowe, John. “Monkey Kings and Mojo: Postmodern Ethnic Humor in Kingston, Reed, and Vizenor.” MELUS, 21 (Winter 1996): 103-126.

Madsen, Deborah L. “(Dis)Figuration: The Body as Icon in the Writings of Maxine Hong Kingston.” Yearbook of English Studies, 24 (1994): 237-250.

Martinez, Sharon Suzuki. “Trickster Strategies: Challenging American Identity, Community, and Art in Kingston’s Tripmaster Monkey.” In Reviewing Asian America.

Melchior, Bonnie. “A Marginal ’I’: The Autobiographical Self Deconstructed in Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior.” Biography, 17 (Summer 1994): 281-295.

Miller, Margaret. “Threads of Identity in Maxine Hong Kingston’s Woman Warrior” Biography, 6 (Winter 1983): 13-33.

Mitchell, Carol. “Talking Story’ in The Woman Warrior: An Analysis of the Use of Folklore.” Kentucky Folklore Record, 27 (January-June 1981): 5-12.

Morante, Linda. “From Silence to Song: The Triumph of Maxine Hong Kingston.” Frontiers, 9, no. 2 (1987): 78-82.

Neubauer, Carol E. “Developing Ties to the Past: Photography and Other Sources of Information in Maxine Hong Kingston’s China Men.” MELUS, 10 (Winter 1983): 17-36.

Nishime, LeiLana. “Engendering Genre: Gender and Nationalism in China Men and The Woman Warrior.” MELUS, 20 (Spring 1995): 67-82.

Ordonez, Elizabeth J. “Narrative Texts by Ethnic Women: Rereading the Past, Reshaping the Future.” MELUS, 9 (Winter 1982): 19-28.

Outka, Paul. “Publish or Perish: Food, Hunger, and Self-Construction in Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior.” Contemporary Literature, 38 (Fall 1997): 447-482.

Rabine, Leslie W. “No Lost Paradise: Social Gender and Symbolic Gender in the Writings of Maxine Hong Kingston.” Signs, 12 (Spring 1987): 471-492. Uses French feminist theory to distinguish between gender as a system of social relations and gender as an effect of discourse and applies these ideas to Kingston’s representation of gender.

Rolf, Robert. “On Maxine Hong Kingston and The Woman Warrior.” Kyushu American Literature, 23 (May 1982): 1-10.

Rose, Shirley K. “Metaphors and Myths of Cross-Cultural Literacy: Autobiographical Narratives by Maxine Hong Kingston, Richard Rodriguez, and Malcolm X.” MELUS, 14 (Spring 1987): 3-15.

Sato, Gayle K. Fujita. “Ghosts as Chinese-American Constructs in Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior.” In Haunting the House of Fiction: Feminist Perspectives on Ghost Stories by American Women, edited by Lynette Carpenter and Wendy K. Kolmar. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1991.

Schueller, Malini. “Questioning Race and Gender Definitions: Dialogic Subversions in The Woman Warrior.” Criticism, 31 (Fall 1989): 421-437.

Schueller. “Theorizing Ethnicity and Subjectivity: Maxine Hong Kingston’s Tripmaster Monkey and Amy Tan’s The Joy Luck Club.” Genders, 15 (Winter 1992): 72-85.

Shan, Te Hsing. “Law as Literature, Literature as Law: Articulating ‘The Laws’ in Maxine Hong Kinston’s China Men.” Tamkang Review, 26 (Autumn-Winter 1995): 235-264.

Shih, Shu Mei. “Exile and Intertextuality in Maxine Hong Kingston’s China Men.” In The Literature of Emigration and Exile, edited by James Whitlark and Wendell Aycock. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 1992.

Shostak, Debra. “Maxine Hong Kingston’s Fake Books.” In Memory, Narrative, and Identity: New Essays in Ethnic American Literatures, edited by Amritjit Singh, Joseph T. Skerrett Jr., and Robert E. Hogan. Boston: North-eastern University Press, 1994.

Skenazy Paul. “Replaying Time.” Enclitic, 11, no. 3 (1989): 36-42. A discussion of Tripmaster Monkey in which Skenazy points out that Kingston’s skill as a writer is sometimes obscured by the attention paid to her racial and gender themes.

Sledge, Linda Ching. “Oral Tradition in Kingston’s China Men.” In Redefining American Literary History, edited by A. LaVonne Brown Ruoff and Jerry W. Ward. New York: Modern Language Association, 1990.

Smith, Jeanne R. “Rethinking American Culture: Maxine Hong Kingston’s Cross-Cultural Tripmaster Monkey.” Modern Language Studies, 26 (Fall 1996): 71-81.

Tanner, James T. F. “Walt Whitman’s Presence in Maxine Hong Kingston’s Tripmaster Monkey: His Fake Book,” MELUS, 20 (Winter 1995): 61-74.

Wang, Alfred S. “Maxine Hong Kingston’s Reclaiming of America: The Birthright of the Chinese American Male.” South Dakota Review, 26 (Spring 1988): 18-29.

Wang, Jennie. “Tripmaster Monkey: King-ston’s Postmodern Representation of a New ’China Man.’” MELUS, 20 (Spring 1995): 101-114.

Wang, Veronica. “Reality and Fantasy: The Chinese-American Woman’s Quest for Identity.” MELUS, 12 (Fall 1985): 23-31.

Williams, A. Noelle. “Parody and Pacifist Transformations in Maxine Hong Kingston’s Tripmaster Monkey: His Fake Book.” MELUS, 20 (Spring 1995): 83-100.

Wong, Sau-ling Cynthia. “Necessity and Extravagance in Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior: Art and the Ethnic Experience.” MELUS, 15 (Spring 1988): 4-26.

Woo, Deborah. “Maxine Hong Kingston: The Ethnic Writer and the Burden of Dual Authenticity.” Amerasia Journal, 16, no. 1 (1990): 173-200.

Wu, Qing Yun. “A Chinese Reader’s Response to Maxine Hong Kingston’s China Men.” MELUS, 17 (Fall 1991): 85-94.

Yu, Ning. “A Strategy against Marginalization: The ’High’ and ’Low’ Cultures in Kingston’s China Men.” College Literature, 23 (October 1996): 73-87.


“Maxine Hong Kingston.” http://www.hmco.com/college/english/heath/syllabuild/iguide... . This page, with text by Amy Ling, is found on the website of the publishing firm Houghton Mifflin. The page includes brief but useful entries on such topics as teaching strategies, themes in Kingston’s work, and questions for reading and discussion.

“Maxine Hong Kingston Teacher Resource Guide.” http://falcon.jmu.edu/schoollibrary/ kingston.htm. A teacher resource guide from James Madison University; includes a Kingston biography and a series of lesson plans.

“Maxine Hong Kingston: Warrior Woman.” http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~natasha/usauto_html/kingston/. An organization called the Kingston Group has created this site, which explores gender and feminism issues, autobiography, and the interpretation and critical reception of the work of ethnic authors, especially Kingston.

“Voices from the Gaps.” This site is a useful resource for information about a large range of ethnic writers. The Kingston page includes a biography, a list of her publications, a selection of critical works, and links to other sites of relevance.


The Maxine Hong Kingston Papers, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.

Outstanding, in-depth scholarship by renowned literary critics; great starting point for students seeking an introduction to the theme and the critical discussions surrounding it.

Maxine Hong Kingston's The Woman Warrior: Memoir of a Girlhood Among Ghosts is, according to the Modern Language Association, the most taught text on U.S. campuses, featured in Literature, Asian American Studies, Asian Studies, Women's Studies, and Anthropology, as well as other departments. Coinciding with the fortieth anniversary of publication of The Woman Warrior, this volume features international scholars revisiting long-standing debates about authenticity, genre, and identity in the text, as well as pushing forward into little explored contexts, such as transnationalism, mythopoesis, diaspora, and relational self-hood. In an exclusive interview with Kingston, the volume editors discuss the place of this groundbreaking text in American literature, understanding humanity in stories of the immigrant experience, and the debt the book owes to both Chinese and American literary traditions. Additional essays compare Kingston's masterwork to other key ethnic American writings by authors such as Amy Tan, Maya Angelou, and Lan Cao.

This comprehensive collection of essays is designed to illuminate the major themes and stylistic features of The Woman Warrior, as well as to apprise readers of the debates and controversies surrounding Kingston's memoir - including the debate over whether the piece should be fiction or nonfiction. A number of these essays make connections to Kingston's later writings, with an emphasis on mother/daughter relationships and feminism.

The book begins with an About This Volume section by West providing a layout of the book. After this is the Book and Author section where Linda Trinh Moser introduces the history and resonance of The Woman Warrior. Editor, West, then provides a biography of the author, which includes an interview by Moser. Following this are four Critical Context essays providing contextual, historical, and comparative insights, as well as an overview of the critical reception of The Woman Warrior. The next section, Critical Readings, contains eight essays on a range of topics. The concluding section of this volume offers Resources designed to provide quick access to facts about Kingston's life and writing. A chronology of Kingston's life is followed by a list of her publications, including books and essays and occasional pieces.

Each essay is 2,500 to 5,000 words in length, and all essays conclude with a list of "Works Cited," along with endnotes. Finally, the volume's appendixes offer a section of useful reference resources:

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