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Rationalization Weber Essay

RATIONALIZATION

Max Weber's works deal with rationalization in sociology of religion, government, organizational theory, and behavior. The process of rationalization affects economic life, law, administration, and religion. Rationalization makes ends of means and imprisons the individual within the ‘iron cage’ of rationalized institutions, organizations, and activities.

Within symbolic interactionism, rationalization is used more in the everyday sense of the word to refer to providing justifications or excuses for one's actions. The term 'rationalization' has two specific meanings in sociology:

(1) The concept 'rationalization' was developed by German sociologist Max Weber (1864-1920) who used it in two ways.

First, rationalization was the process through which magic, supernatural and religious ideas lose cultural importance in a society and ideas based on science and practical calculation become dominant. For example, in modern societies science has rationalized our understanding of weather patterns. Science explains weather patterns as a result of interaction between physical elements like wind-speed and direction, air and water temperatures, humidity, etc.

In many a culture, weather is thought to express the pleasure or displeasure of gods, or spirits of ancestors. One explanation is rationalized and scientific, the other mysterious and magical.

Rationalization also involves the development of forms of social organization devoted to the achievement of precise goals by efficient means. It is this type of rationalization that we see in the development of modern business corporations and of bureaucracy. These are organizations dedicated to the pursuit of defined goals by calculated, systematically administered means.

(2) Within symbolic interactionism, rationalization is used more in the everyday sense of the word to refer to providing justifications or excuses for one's actions.

Max Weber's Types of Rationality: Cornerstones for the Analysis of Rationalization Processes in History. - Kalberg, Stephen
American Journal of Sociology, v85 n5 p1145-79 Mar 1980
Abstract: Explores rationality in Max Weber's works and identifies four types of rationality which play major roles in his writing, which are practical, theoretical, substantive, and formal.

Vanished Vediators: On the Residual Status of Judges in Max Weber's Theory of Legal Rationalization - Sahni, Isher-Paul. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association.
Abstract: The centrality of judges in Max Weber’s theory of legal rationalization and their residual status in his Sociology of Law are discussed. The vital role he assigns to judges is exposed by privileging his frequently overlooked discussion of the anti-formalistic tendencies in modern law. Their neglect in his comparative examination of the Continental and the English administrations of justice is explained by foregrounding the influence exerted on him by the ideals of Pandectist jurisprudence, as revealed in his Critique of Stammler, and by the politico-legal context in which he wrote, as evinced by his assessment of the Free Law Movement.

The City: Rationalization and freedom in Max Weber - DOMINGUES J. M.
Rio de Janeiro Federal University, Department of Sociology, Rio de Janeiro, BRESIL
Philosophy & social criticism ISSN 0191-4537 2000, vol. 26, no4, pp. 107-126 (1 p.3/4)
Abstract: This article argues that it can however provide fresh insights into some key problems of Weber's diagnosis of modernity and into his general sociological theory, especially as to his action theory and creativity. A more open-ended conception of modernity can be gained from its analysis, which is more compatible with Weber's own methodology.

A Subjective Universal: Max Weber and the Modern-Postmodern Divide - Thibodeaux, Jarrett. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting.
Abstract: Looking at Weber’s methodology and concept of rationalization, I explore how his writings relate to modernism and postmodernism. I find that Weber was a postmodernist or minimalist in methodology because of his desire for many narratives rather than one grand narrative. However, in terms of his concept of rationalization he was a modernist/universalist in that he saw rationalization, in how one attempted to achieve a goal, as objectively decipherable and that this objectivity was specific to modern western culture.

The Conflict between Methodology and Rationalization in the Work of Max Weber
Lars Udehn, Department of Sociology, Uppsala
Acta Sociologica, Vol. 24, No. 3, 131-147 (1981)
Max Weber is the leading representative of an interpretive theory in sociology aiming at an explanation in terms of the motives of the acting individuals. He is also the proponent of the thesis that the Western world is moving in the direction of increasing rationalization, held by many to be the uniting theme of his work. It is the thesis of this paper that there is a conflict between these two themes in Weber's work. The process of rationalization ends in an 'iron cage' of bureaucratic domination.

The Dialectics of Religious Rationalization and Secularization: Max Weber and Ernst Bloch, Warren S. Goldstein - Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Central Florida. 
Critical Sociology, Vol. 31, No. 1-2, 115-151 (2005)
Both Weber and Bloch engaged in a class analysis of the Bible. In Ancient Judaism, Weber provides the historical, political, and socio-economic context in which we can understand the origins of the belief in the Messiah. Bloch's dialectical theory of secularization of Judeo-Christian Messianism into Marxism has a parallel structure to Weber's theory of religious rationalization in Ancient Judaism. For Weber, ancient Judaism experienced a process of religious rationalization that is marked by dialectics between the charisma of the prophet and the tradition of the priest, between value and substantive rationality, between disaster and salvation. Combining elements from Weber's theory of religious rationalization and Bloch's theory of secularization, provides the basis for a dialectical theory of secularization in which the tensions between the sacred and profane, while driving the process of secularization forward, remain unresolved.

The Rationalization of Everything? Using Ritzer’s McDonaldization Thesis to Teach Weber, Stephen Lippmann, Howard Aldrich - Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Today’s students have grown up in a world structured by the forces of rationalization, making it difficult for them to comprehend the scope and magnitude of the transformations Weber described.
Max Weber ([1905] 1998; 1946) argued that the process of rationalization, once unleashed upon the world, transformed social life forever. By loosening the hold of custom and tradition, rationalization led to new practices that were chosen because they were efficient, rather than customary. Weber argued that because of the “technical superiority” of the bureaucratic form, it would come to dominate all forms of human organization like an iron cage in which humans were eternally trapped. Weber’s ideas continue to inform sociological theories today.
Students have grown up in a world structured by the forces of rationalization, and thus they often have difficulty comprehending the scope and magnitude of the transformations Weber described.

Judicial Reform and Rationalization: The Diffusion of Court Reform Policies Among the American States,  J M Scheb ; A R Matheny - Journal: Law and Policy Volume:10 Issue:1 Dated:(January 1988) Pages:25-42
Abstract: Explaining the diffusion of judicial reform policies among the American States is an elusive task. It begins with Max Weber's sociology of law from which his concept of rationalization is adopted as a schema of policy development. According to Weber, the 'rationalization' of legal institutions would accompany the advancement of capitalism in modernizing nations. Thus, it is expected that specific judicial reform policies expressly aimed at rationalizing the structure and process of State court systems be closely associated with each other and with commonly accepted indicators of economic development among the States. Court reforms are related to broader policy innovations among the States, drawing on earlier 'diffusion of innovations' research. The data indicate a strong connection between judicial reform and more general patterns of innovation diffusion among the States, but provide only modest support for Weber's assertions about the rationalization of legal systems under advancing capitalism.

Weber's concept of rationalization and the electronic revolution in western classical music
Journal Qualitative Sociology, Publisher Springer Netherlands
ISSN 0162-0436 (Print) 1573-7837 (Online) Issue Volume 1, Number 3 / January, 1979
Valerie Ann Malhotra, Department of Sociology, Texas Woman's University, USA
Abstract In examining the electronic revolution in Western Classical music, this article considers many of the important issues which Weber addresses in his work on the sociology of music, particularly the definitional problems related to Weber's concept of rationalization and the disenchantment of the world. The article examines Weber's concepts of rational action and rationalization in relation to music, then through analysis of developments in electronic music, raises questions regarding Weber's conclusions regarding the effect of rationalization in Western culture.

An overview of Max Weber's concept of rationalization is presented. Weber made the historical movement away from institutional structures that engender actions based on the emotional, mystical, traditional, and religious to institutional structures that produce actions based on reason, calculability, predictability, and efficiency—the primary elements of his philosophy of history. Rationalization brings benefits to organizations while trapping workers in feelings of disenchantment. Despite the shortcomings of the process, Weber viewed it as efficient and necessary.

Keywords Bureaucracy; Efficiency; Fordism; Iron Cage; McDonaldization; Rationalization; Taylorism

Weber

Overview

Max Weber (1864–1920) is considered one of the founders of modern sociology. His work included studies of economics, the modern political state, and religion. At the core of Weber's work was a concern with the modern German state. He was a thinker situated in history between the positivist foundations of sociology, embodied in the works of Comte and Durkheim, and the rise of the anti-positivist movement. Weber was a contemporary of Wilhelm Dilthey, who argued that the social sciences were altogether different from the natural sciences and needed their own distinct but similarly scientific approach (Dilthey, 1989).

Weber embraced Dilthey's argument. In his last major lecture, "Science as a Vocation," he said that the natural sciences can only tell the answer to the question of what we should do if we want to technically master nature. It cannot tell us whether we want to or should master nature (Landmann, 1984). For Weber, rationalization was totally alien to value consideration (Gronow, 1988). His influence on sociology was such that both positivist and anti-positivist sociologists claim Weber as their own. Weber's contribution to sociological method is unquestioned. He refined existing concepts and introduced many more to the sociological approach to knowledge. He wrote at length about objective sociology and the subjective. To this end, he addressed concepts such as value-free research, social norms, ideal types, and social relations.

Perhaps Weber's most influential and enduring work was on rationalization. Rationalization is the movement over time away from institutional structures that engender actions based on the emotional, mystical, traditional, and religious, toward institutional structures that produce actions based on reason, calculability, predictability, and efficiency. It was in the light of his theory on rationalization that Weber viewed both the progress and the growing disenchantment of Germany.

Rationality

H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (1978) described rationalization as the most fundamental element of Weber's philosophy of history. The urge of religious teachers, artists, intellectuals, and eventually scientists throughout history has been toward comprehensive and meaningful interpretation of the universe. This constant drive away from institutional structures of magic, mysticism, and religion toward secular structures of rationalization has been at the center of the progress of history and what Weber called the "sociology of knowledge." Weber writes about the rise of bureaucracy and its presuppositions and causes in Economy and Society (1922). He sees the money economy as the primary presupposition of bureaucracy and gives as examples of the rise of historical bureaucracies the ancient Egyptian and Roman civilizations, the Roman Catholic Church, modern Western states, and modern capitalism.

Once created, these bureaucratic machines take on a life of their own and are permanent in character. Rationalization in these structures comprises calculability, efficiency, technology, and control over economic goods, labor, opportunities, advantages, and even values. This control allows for bureaucracy to better predict probable outcomes and mitigate risk (Weber, 1978). Throughout his career, Weber continued to develop the idea of rationalization and, in doing so, identified four types of rationality:

• Practical

• Theoretical

• Formal

• Substantive (Kalberg, 1980)

Practical Rationality

Practical rationality is based on an individual's experience and context. By considering their observations in light of their desired ends, individuals weigh their options and pursue the actions that are most likely to bring about those ends. Practical rationality is pragmatic and assumes action. Weber believed, like Sigmund Freud and later Michele Foucault, that culture and its institutions of rationality shape practical reason (Ritzer, 1975).

Theoretical Rationality

Unlike practical rationality, theoretical rationality does not assume action will be taken. Rather, theoretical rationality attempts to understand and explicate the world. This does not mean that theoretical rationality cannot give rise to action; it simply means that the theoretical rationality does not necessitate action.

Substantive Rationality

Substantive rationality involves the consideration of numerous cultural, institutional, or personal values. It recognizes that people often find themselves caught between competing values, norms, or laws and must choose between conflicting values or rationalities. The fact that substantive rationality is necessary points to a significant dilemma of structures of rationalization.

Formal Rationality

Formal rationality typifies bureaucratic institutions. Formal rationality embraces the norms, rules, and laws of economic, legal, and scientific organizations. With the rise of the rational structures within the church, even religion has become subjected to formal rationality. Adherence to formal rationality is based on an impersonal bond. This bond, something Sigmund Freud (1989) called "guilt" and Michel Foucault (1979) termed "discipline," imposes adherence and action (Weber, 1989). Formal rationality is the most coercive rationality and the most prevalent in social structures.

Disenchantment

Weber embraced scientific rationalization and its effectiveness in the natural sciences, though he remained wary of its limitations. His critique was directed towards the Kantian promise that reason would bring progress. Weber viewed Kantian reason, and Enlightenment thinking in general, as leading toward a rationalization of the economy that would limit individuals and lead to disenchantment (MacKinnon, 2001). Additionally, he often complained that the constant extension of rationality in bureaucracy through technology designed to emancipate eventually leads to an "iron cage" (Habermas, 1981).

Here lies the rub in Weber's work: Weber understood the value of rationalization and bureaucracy and the benefits it brought society. He did not see how history could march forward without it. However, he was deeply troubled by hegemony and the deep personal feeling of disenchantment that rationalization heaped on individuals.

He saw rationalized structures offering individuals...

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